Fig 3: Measured Input Impedance
of a resonant horizontal half-wave dipole
above ground where h is height above ground.
(a) Calculated for soil permittivity of 6.
(b) Dry ground.
(c) Wet ground.
(d) Conducting mat (large, fine-mesh copper mat representing
perfectly conducting ground for comparison purposes).
(e) Calculated for Infinite permittivity.
Results quoted are for an open site covered with short grass and
having a gravel subsoil, of which a sample measured a value of six
after a long spell of fine weather.
Above the dielectric ground there is a large increase in the radiation
resistance of the antenna as it approaches ground-level.
Close to the ground the radiation resistance is about double that of a
similar antenna in free space.
(Source: Proctor, Proc IEE, Part 3, May 1950)